Sabtu, 17 Februari 2018

ANTOINE LAVOISIER


Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier was a French nobleman and chemist who was central to the 18th-century chemical revolution and who had a large influence on both the history of chemistry and the history of biology. He is widely considered in popular literature as the "father of modern chemistry".

Lavoisier was a powerful member of a number of aristoctatic councils, and an administrator of the Ferme generale. The Ferme générale was one of the most hated components of the Ancien Regime because of the profits it took at the expense of the state, the secrecy of the terms of its contracts, and the violence of its armed agents. All of these political and economic activities enabled him to fund his scientific research. At the height of the French Revolution, he was charged with tax fraud and selling adulterated tobacco, and was guilotined.

Early life and education


Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier was born to a wealthy family of the nobility in Paris on 26 August 1743. The son of an attorney at the Parliament of Paris, he inherited a large fortune at the age of five upon the death of his mother. Lavoisier began his schooling at the College des Quatre-Nations, University of Paris in Paris in 1754 at the age of 11. In his last two years (1760–1761) at the school, his scientific interests were aroused, and he studied chemistry, botany, astronomy, and mathematics. In the philosophy class he came under the tutelage of Abbe Nicolas Louis de Lacaille, a distinguished mathematician and observational astronomer who imbued the young Lavoisier with an interest in meteorological observation, an enthusiasm which never left him. Lavoisier entered the school of law, where he received a bachelor's degree in 1763 and a licentiate in 1764. Lavoisier received a law degree and was admitted to the bar, but never practiced as a lawyer. However, he continued his scientific education in his spare time.

Early scientific work

Lavoisier's education was filled with the ideals of the French Enlightenment of the time, and he was fascinated by Pierre Maquer's dictionary of chemistry. He attended lectures in the natural sciences. Lavoisier's devotion and passion for chemistry were largely influenced by Etienne Condillac, a prominent French scholar of the 18th century. His first chemical publication appeared in 1764. From 1763 to 1767, he studied geology under Jean-Etienne Guettard. In collaboration with Guettard, Lavoisier worked on a geological survey of Alsace-Lorraine in June 1767. In 1764 he read his first paper to the French Academy of Sciences, France's most elite scientific society, on the chemical and physical properties of gypsum (hydrated calsium sulfate), and in 1766 he was awarded a gold medal by the King for an essay on the problems of urban street lighting. In 1768 Lavoisier received a provisional appointment to the Academy of Sciences. In 1769, he worked on the first geological map of France.

Contributions to chemistry

Oxygen Theory of Combustion

During late 1772 Lavoisier turned his attention to the phenomenon of combustion, the topic on which he was to make his most significant contribution to science. He reported the results of his first experiments on combustion in a note to the Academy on 20 October, in which he reported that when phosphorus burned, it combined with a large quantity of air to produce acid spirit of phosphorus, and that the phosphorus increased in weight on burning. In a second sealed note deposited with the Academy a few weeks later (1 November) Lavoisier extended his observations and conclusions to the burning of sulfur and went on to add that "what is observed in the combustion of sulfur and phosphorus may well take place in the case of all substances that gain in weight by combustion and calcination: and I am persuaded that the increase in weight of metallic calces is due to the same cause, oxygen"
Metal combustion scheme with oxygen

Pioneer of stoichiometry

Lavoisier's researches included some of the first truly quantitative chemical experiments. He carefully weighed the reactants and products of a chemical reaction in a sealed glass vessel so that no gases could escape, which was a crucial step in the advancement of chemistry.[36] In 1774, he showed that, although matter can change its state in a chemical reaction, the total mass of matter is the same at the end as at the beginning of every chemical change. Thus, for instance, if a piece of wood is burned to ashes, the total mass remains unchanged if gaseous reactants and products are included. Lavoisier's experiments supported the law of conservation of mass.

Legacy


Compsition and Chemical Change
Lavoisier also did early research in physical chemistry and thermodynamics in joint experiments with Laplace. They used a calorimeter to estimate the heat evolved per unit of carbon dioxide produced, eventually finding the same ratio for a flame and animals, indicating that animals produced energy by a type of combustion reaction.
Lavoisier's Laboratory, Musee des Arts et Metiers, Paris.

Statue of Lavoisier, at Hotel de Ville, Paris
He was essentially a theorist, and his great merit lay in his capacity to take over experimental work that others had carried out—without always adequately recognizing their claims—and by a rigorous logical procedure, reinforced by his own quantitative experiments, expounding the true explanation of the results. He completed the work of Black, Priestley and Cavendish, and gave a correct explanation of their experiments.

Rabu, 17 Januari 2018

KILLER WHALE

The Killer Whale
By : Muhamad Fikri Nurohman / X-Science 2


About the Orca
Orcas, or killer whales, are the largest of the dolphins and one of the world's most powerful predators. They feast on marine mammals such as seals, sea lions, and even whales, employing teeth that can be four inches long. They are known to grab seals right off the ice. They also eat fish, squid, and seabirds.

General Knowledge
COMMON NAME  : Orca (Killer Whale)
SCIENTIFIC NAME  : Orcinus orca
TYPE  : Mammals
DIET  : Carnivores
GROUP NAME: Pod
AVERAGE LIFESPAN IN THE WILD  : 50 to 80 years
SIZE  : 23 to 32 ft
WEIGHT Up to 6 tons

Classification
KINGDOM: Animal (Animalia)
PHYLUM: Vertebrate (Chordata)
CLASS:  Mammal (Mammalia)
ORDER: Marine mammal (Cetacea)
FAMILY: Oceanic dolphin (Delphinidae)
GENUS: Killer whale genus (Orcinus)
SPECIES: Killer whale (Orca)

Hunting and Communication
Though they often frequent cold, coastal waters, orcas can be found from the polar regions to the Equator.
Orcas hunt in deadly pods, family groups of up to 40 individuals. There appears to be both resident and transient pod populations of orcas. These different groups may prey on different animals and use different techniques to catch them. Resident pods tend to prefer fish, while transient pods target marine mammals. All pods use effective, cooperative hunting techniques that some liken to the behavior of wolf packs.
Whales make a wide variety of communicative sounds, and each pod has distinctive noises that its member will recognize even at a distance. They use echolocation to communicate and hunt, making sounds that travel underwater until they encounter objects, then bounce back, revealing their location, size, and shape.

Reproduction and Conservation
Orcas are protective of their young, and other adolescent females often assist the mother in caring for them. Mothers give birth every three to ten years, after a 17-month pregnancy.
Orcas are immediately recognizable by their distinctive black-and-white coloring and are the intelligent, trainable stars of many aquarium shows. Orcas have never been extensively hunted by humans.

Life Cycle
FEMALE
Mature at age 10.
Can live up to 90 years old.
Oldest female orca is 103 years old.              
MALE
Mature at age 15.
Can live up to 40 years old.
Oldest male orca is 59 years old.


Another Fact
Though called killer whales, orcas aren't whales; they are the largest dolphin species.
In Argentina, orcas hurl themselves on-shore to grab sea lion pups.
In the Antarctic, pod members cooperate to make large waves that wash seals from ice floes
Whalers call the orca the "killer of the whales." It preys on sperm, gray, fin, humpback, and other whales.


QUESTION :
1. Why does killer whale is classified into groups of dolphins, not into groups of whales?

Minggu, 12 November 2017

NARRATIVE TEXT

NARRATIVE TEXT

The definition of narrative text
Narrative text is a story with complication or problematic events and it tries to find the resolutions to solve the problems. An important part of narrative text is the narrative mode, the set of methods used to communicate the narrative through a process narration.
The purpose of narrative text
The purpose of narrative text is to amuse or entertain the reader with a story
Generic structures of narrative text
1. Orientation
Sets the scene. Where and when the story happened and introduces the participants of the story (who and what is involved in the story)
2. Complication
Tells the beginning of the problems which leads to the crisis (climax) of the main participants.
3. Resolution
The problem (the crisis) is resolved, either in a happy or in a sad ending.

Example of a narrative Text

A.   SNOW WHITE AND THE SEVEN DWARFS

Once upon a time in a great castle, there was a beautiful princess. She was very pretty, with blue eyes and long black hair. Her skin was delicate and white, and so she was called Snow White. Snow White had a step mother who was always jealous of Snow White's beauty. Her step mother too was very beautiful, and the magic mirror told her this every day, whenever she asked it.

One day, the step mother asked the magic mirror who is the loveliest lady in the land was and the magic mirror answered Snow White was the loveliest in the land. The step mother was very mad. Then he asked her trusty servants to take Snow White into the forest, far away from the Castle and killed her. But the servant didn't kill Snow White, he led the innocent little girl away.

In the forest, little Snow White was alone and scared. She didn't know where she should go. But suddenly she saw a small strange cottage. She wondered who lived there. Then she entered the cottage.

Inside the cottage, there was 7 beds and a kitchen. Snow White was too tired to explore the cottage, and suddenly fallen asleep. In the afternoon, the seven dwarfs who lived in the cottage came home. They surprised to see there was a young lady there. One dwarf woke her up and asked who she was. Snow White told them her sad story. The seven dwarfs understood the feeling of Snow White and asked her to live with them in the cottage.

Meanwhile in the castle, the servant came back and told to the step mother that Snow White was killed. Then the step mother asked the magic mirror once again who the loveliest in the land was and still the magic mirror answered the Snow White who lived in the small cottage with seven dwarfs was the loveliest one in the land. So the step mother was angry and she planed something bad to Snow White.

Then the step mother disguising herself as an old women who sold a basket of poisoned apples and went to the cottage. In the cottage, the seven dwarfs warned Snow White to not open the door to the stranger.

The step mother finally arrived to the cottage and began to offer Snow White an apple. Snow White refused to open the door but the step mother kept persuade and finally Snow White opened the door and brought an apple then she ate it. So Snow White fallen down with the poisoned apple beside her.

In the afternoon, when the seven dwarfs came home, they were surprised with Snow White who laid down on the floor with pale face and a poisoned apple beside her. The seven dwarfs were sad seeing the Snow White was dying but not die yet. Then the seven dwarfs decided to make a beautiful bed made from a crystal coffin to make Snow White keep alive.

Day by day, the seven dwarfs waited for the miracle came when Snow White suddenly woke up. Then one day, there was a wanderer who actually a prince from far away kingdom saw a beautiful lady was laid down on crystal bed. The wanderer asked the dwarfs what was happened and the dwarfs told him the story.

Heard the Snow White's story, the princes decided to carry her to his Castle and asked the doctor to help her. Then the prince kissed her to show his intention. But suddenly Snow White was back to life. The fact was that the prince's kiss broke the spell. Then the prince asked Snow White to marry him.

Finally, Snow White lived happily in a great castle. But from time to time, she was drawn back to visit the little cottage down in the forest.

B.   GENERIC STRUCTURE

1. Orientation
Once upon a time in a great castle, there was a beautiful princess. She was very pretty, with blue eyes and long black hair. Her skin was delicate and white, and so she was called Snow White. Snow White had a step mother who was always jealous of Snow White's beauty. Her step mother too was very beautiful, and the magic mirror told her this every day, whenever she asked it.

2. Complication
One day, the step mother asked the magic mirror who is the loveliest lady in the land was and the magic mirror answered Snow White was the loveliest in the land. The step mother was very mad. Then he asked her trusty servants to take Snow White into the forest, far away from the Castle and killed her. But the servant didn't kill Snow White, he led the innocent little girl away.

In the forest, little Snow White was alone and scared. She didn't know where she should go. But suddenly she saw a small strange cottage. She wondered who lived there. Then she entered the cottage.

Inside the cottage, there was 7 beds and a kitchen. Snow White was to tired too explore the cottage, and suddenly fallen asleep. In the afternoon, the seven dwarfs who lived in the cottage came home. They surprised to see there was a young lady there. One dwarf woke her up and asked who she was. Snow White told them her sad story. The seven dwarfs understood the feeling of Snow White and asked her to live with them in the cottage.

Meanwhile in the castle, the servant came back and told to the step mother that Snow White was killed. Then the step mother asked the magic mirror once again who the loveliest in the land was and still the magic mirror answered the Snow White who lived in the small cottage with seven dwarfs was the loveliest one in the land. So the step mother was angry and she planed something bad to Snow White.

Then the step mother disguising herself as an old women who sold a basket of poisoned apples and went to the cottage. In the cottage, the seven dwarfs warned Snow White to not open the door to the stranger.

The step mother finally arrived to the cottage and began to offer Snow White an apple. Snow White refused to open the door but the step mother kept persuade and finally Snow White opened the door and brought an apple then she ate it. So Snow White fallen down with the poisoned apple beside her.

In the afternoon, when the seven dwarfs came home, they were surprised with Snow White who laid down on the floor with pale face and a poisoned apple beside her. The seven dwarfs were sad seeing the Snow White was dying but not die yet. Then the seven dwarfs decided to make a beautiful bed made from a crystal coffin to make Snow White keep alive.

3. Resolution

Day by day, the seven dwarfs waited for the miracle came when Snow White suddenly woke up. Then one day, there was a wanderer who actually a prince from far away kingdom saw a beautiful lady was laid down on crystal bed. The wanderer asked the dwarfs what was happened and the dwarfs told him the story.

Heard the Snow White's story, the princes decided to carry her to his Castle and asked the doctor to help her. Then the prince kissed her to show his intention. But suddenly Snow White was back to life. The fact was that the prince's kiss broke the spell. Then the prince asked Snow White to marry him.

Finally, Snow White lived happily in a great castle. But from time to time, she was drawn back to visit the little cottage down in the forest.

C.   LANGUAGE FEATURES
Who                : Snow white, Snow white's step mother, the magic mirror, and the seven dwarfs.
When              : One upon a time; one day; in the afternoon.
Where             : In a great castle, in the forest, and a cottage.
Specific participant : Snow white
Past tense       : Was, had, called, told, asked, answered, killed, led, saw, entered, surprised, woke her up, understood, planed, sold, warned, arrived, refused, decided, waited, laid down, heard.
Adverb of Time    : Once upon a time; one day; day by day; once; that day.
Time conjunction : Then; finally.
Action verb           : Called, Told, Asked, Killed, Sold, Arrived.

Rabu, 01 November 2017

STUDENT LEADERSHIP TRAINING

Hello, guys!
Now, I will share my experience during Student Leadership Training....

What is leadership?
.
.
A simple definition of leadership is the act of motivating a group of people to act towards achieving a common goal. Put even more simply, the leader is the inspiration and director of the action. He / she is the person in the group that possesses the combination of personality and leadership skills that makes others want to follow his / her direction.

At Thursday, September 21st 2017, My school, Senior High School 3 Bandung holds a Student Leadership Training. This event was held at the Infantry Armament Center (in Indonesian = Pussenif).

On the first day (Thursday, September 21st 2017), all of the students were lining up at the ceremony field to attend the opening ceremony. There we saw the training coaches for the first time. 288 students were divided into 10 groups consisting of 4 groups of boy and 6 groups of girl.  On 9 a.m, the ceremony held. In the ceremony, students are briefed on the Pussenif and the training rules.

After the ceremony completed, all of the students were entering a big hall located near the field. There we were introduced a jargon (encouraging words). The first teaching materials delivered by Mr. Aat. He explained well about how important leadership is. After that, our headmaster explained what leadership is.

On 11.30 a.m, we had a lunch. Before had a lunch, we had to sing before eating. According to the rules, when eating, our body must be upright. Spoon that comes to the mouth. The coaches only gave us 5 minutes to finished our lunch.

In the afternoon, we were taught the marching lines. Furthermore, in the evening, we were given teaching materials till 10 pm. After that, we went to the barracks and slept. However, 1 hour later there was the sound of sirens waking us up. We were told to go to the front of the barracks to row back and get a consequences. 

On the second day (Friday, September 22nd 2017), we woke up early morning at 4 am. Muslim students must go to the mosque to pray and listening to a lecture. After that, we collected in the field to do gymnastics morning. Continue with the line marching practice until 10 am.

After we finished the marching practice, we went back to the barracks to toke a bath and then went to the mosque for Friday prayers.

In the afternoon, we prepare to go to Taman Makam Pahlawan. Acording to the plan, in that place we will hold a night caraka. We brought two candles and some money to buy some water.

Right at 5 pm, we went there. We walked down the lane while singing the song of the spirits. After a distance of 2 km, we got there at around 6 pm. Then, the muslims pray at the mosque near from it place.

Night caraka event started at 7 pm. Before the peak of the event, we get a briefing from the coach about the rules of the game. First, we are given norrit to make dirty faces, its function is as a disguise tool. Furthermore, we line up according to their respective groups.

So, that's My story about Student Leadership Training.....

Jumat, 13 Oktober 2017

Historical Building in Bandung, Gedung Sate

HISTORICAL BUILDING IN BANDUNG, GEDUNG SATE

Hello Guys!!!
This time, I would like to tell you a historical building in West Java, Indonesia. This building not only known by the local people, but also known by all of Indonesian.
Curious about the place? Look at the picture below!

Day
Night
                                           

Gedung Sate is a public building in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia.
Its common name, Gedung sate, is a nickname that translates literally from Indonesian to 'satay building’. It has six satay ornaments on its central building.

Gedung Sate has become one of the tourist destination in Bandung. Especially foreign tourists.

Want to know more? Check out this video on my youtube channel
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tfAnub7uG-k

Don't forget to watch, like, and subscribe my channel...

Rabu, 30 Agustus 2017

It's My Holiday


A Conversation between Fikri and Ngux in the Canteen at SMAN 3 Bandung
They Talking at the Break Time
They're Talking about Planning for Holiday

Fikri : "Hello, Ngux!"
Ngux : "Hello, Fikri!"
Fikri : "Ngux, It's September. Holiday is near. I heard school holiday extended for two weeks. What will you do next holiday, bro?"
Ngux : "I don't know. I don't have a plan. Maybe I just stay at home to spend my holiday. How about you Fikri, what will you do next holiday?"
Fikri : "I have a plan. I will go to Pangandaran Beach."
Ngux : "With whom will you go?"
Fikri : "I will go there with my friends."
Ngux : "That's great. Have you ever been to Pangandaran Beach?"
Fikri : "Yes, I have. I have gone there twice. And next holiday is my third trip to there."
Ngux : "Really?? I've never been away there. Is Pangandaran Beach fun?"
Fikri : "It is very fun. You can swim at the edge with no worry because the waves aren't too heavy. You can hire some swimming equipment, such as launcher and buoy."
Ngux : "How can we reach to that place?"
Fikri : "The distance between Bandung and Pangandaran Beach is about 210 km. You can go there by bus. With only 6 ours, you will arrive at City Center of Ciamis. Pangandaran Beach is not too far from City Center of Ciamis. And don't worry, there are many lodging near from the beach and the price is not too expensive."
Ngux : "That's wonderful. I can't imagine how wonderful if I have a holiday there."

Michael joined them

Michael : "Hey, Fikri and Ngux!"
Fikri, Ngux : "Hello Mich, long time no see."
Michael : "Yes, I'm just recovered from illness. Guyys, what will you do next holiday?"
Ngux     : "I don't know. I don't have a plan. But Fikri will go to Pangandaran Beach with his friends."
Michael : "Really?? That's a good plan, bro. Pangandaran Beach is very pleasant."
Fikri     : "Yup, almost every year I go there. How about you Mich? Where will you go?"
Michael : "I will go to Bromo Mountain."
Ngux     : "What will you do there? As I know, at the mountain we just enjoy the scenery only, no other activity there."
Michael : "No, you're wrong man, I can hiking, taking some sunset pictures, and the most amazing is I'll tying to offroad by motocross."
Fikri      : "Yea. Hiking is good, offroad is better, but visiting beach is the most fun of all. Hahahaha"
Ngux     : "Hmmm :( I have never been to the beach nor to the mountain."
Michael : "Why? Where are you during the holidays all this time?"
Ngux     : "I just stay at home. I never going on vacation"
Fikri     : "How sad you are. I have an idea. 
Michael : "Why don't you go to Pangandaran with Fikri?"
Ngux     : "But I only have a little money."
Fikri     : "Don't worry with your money. I can give you some money for your needs there.."
Ngux     : "Owhhh, thank you men, you're my best friend. Then, I will go with you to Pangandaran."
Fikri     : "Yeahh, no problem."

The Bell is Ringing

Michael : "Okay guys, see you again. The bell is ringing"
Fikri     : "Yeah, good bye."
Ngux     : "Let's go to the class, and thank you Fikri"
Fikri      : "Okay, okay. No problem"



Unforgettable Moment

Hello!
This Time, I would like to share my unforgettable moment in my live

When I was in elementary school grade 2, I ever joined a competition that calls Calistung (In Bahasa = Baca tulis hitung). I joined this competition after been selected by my mathematics teacher and Bahasa teacher. I'm very happy at that moment because it is my first time to join an academic competition.

My teacher chose me to join the competition because of my mathematics skills. I love mathematics since I was a child. In my opinion, math is fun because there are so many way to solve problems in math. Beside that, my mathematics teacher in my elementary school is great and fun. It makes me love mathematics.

To win the competition, I have to learn and practice more than others. Because of that, I usually trained by my teacher after school. When other students go home, I still in school. Furthermore, I often got a dispensation from school. Luckily, I didn't missed any school lessons.

Besides at school, I also study at home with my parents. My father gave me some exercises to do. He also teach me how to solve an expert question that I can't solve it.

Continuous practiced make me bored. One day before the competition started, I went to a football field near my house. From a distance, I saw my friends played there. Then, I joined them to play football. All of us take off our footwear. Accidentally, my foot stepped on a sharp broken glass. Then, bloods poured out from my foot. My friends picked me up and bring me home. My mother was very shocked when she saw my condition. Then, she cleaned my wounds and put a bandage on me.

I was very painful at that time. I forgot everything including the competition. At that time, I just want to rest and cancel the competition, but my mother gave me some motivations to don't give up.

The next day, my wounds become better. I feel I can join the competition although my foot is bandaged. With a high hopes and prayer, my parents accompany me to the location where the competition was held.

At 8.00 a.m. the competition started. Sometimes, I feel pain, but I could endure the pain because of my focus to solve all of the questions. At 10.00 a.m. the competition finished. Alhamdulillah, I am very grateful because I can solve all the questions. After finished the competition, the participants should waited for the results. But, I asked to the committee to go home first because of my feet pain.

About 3.00 p.m. my teacher call my mother and informed that I became the second winner of the competition. I am very happy and grateful as though my feet didn't pain at all.

~~THE END~~


That is a story about my unforgettable moment.
Thanks for visiting my web.
GOOD BYE..!


ANTOINE LAVOISIER Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier  was a French nobleman  and chemist  who was central to the 18th-century c hemical ...